Browse Glossaries by Alphabetical Order

Accompanied Shopping

A qualitative market research methodology in which pre-selected respondents walk around a store as if they were doing their regular shopping, but they are accompanied by a researcher who observes everything, from how they approach the store and what they look for to what they like and dislike.

Acquiescence Bias

Also known as agreement bias or “yea-saying”, it is a type of response bias common in survey research in which respondents choose a positive response option or indicate a positive connotation disproportionately more frequently. Respondents do so without considering the question's content or their "true" preference.

Ad Hoc Research

It is usually conducted for and funded by a single client company, and the results are proprietary to the client. It is specifically designed to address a particular problem or issue, and it is usually done when there is insufficient existing information.

Affective Component

Concerned with a consumer's emotions or feelings towards a specific product or service, it is evaluative in nature and determines an individual's overall assessment of the attitude object in terms of some kind of favorableness rating.

Aided Awareness

It measures how many people depict knowledge of a brand or product when prompted. It is also known as prompted awareness (brand recognition). Including both closed-ended and open-ended questions can help you measure both aided and unaided brand awareness in the same survey.

Analyze (or) Analysis

It is a comprehensive assessment of a market within a specific industry in which market dynamics like volume and value, potential customer segments, buying patterns, competition, and the like are studied.


Anonymity of information collected from research participants means that the project either does not collect identifying information about individual people (e.g., name, address, email address, etc.) or cannot link individual responses to participants' identities.

Area Sampling

When a complete frame of reference is not available, area sampling is used. The overall investigation area is divided into small sub-areas that are sampled at random or according to a predetermined process (stratification of sampling).

Atomistic Test

It attempts to assess a participant's reaction in a research group (possibly a focus group or deliberative research group) to a single component or element of a concept or proposition. An atomistic test differs from gauging reaction to the entire concept or proposition which would be an example of holistic testing.


It attempts to assess a participant's reaction in a research group (possibly a focus group or deliberative research group) to a single component or element of a concept or proposition. An atomistic test differs from gauging reaction to the entire concept or proposition which would be an example of holistic testing.


It is a word or phrase that describes a qualitative characteristic of an idea or object under consideration, such as gender, but age is a variable. [Attribute analysis is a market research technique that looks at marketing communications to see how competing products/services are defined and how they are positioned.]


It is a measure of how well respondents understand an object or an idea. There are two types of awareness: spontaneous (or unaided) awareness and prompted (or aided) awareness. [For example, brand awareness is the number of people who are conscious of or are acquainted with a specific brand, company, or product.]

Back Translation

Also known as reverse translation, it is a method of validation in which content (such as a survey) is translated back to its original language and then compared to the source text. The goal is to identify discrepancies and assess the translation's accuracy.


It refers to any emerging distortion that skews the results away from reality. Bias usually results from process flaws, which boil down to insufficient feedback techniques.

Biased Question

A question is biased if it is phrased or formatted in such a way that it steers respondents toward a particular answer. There is a risk of question bias even if your queries are complex, making it difficult for the respondent to understand and answer honestly.

Biased Sample

Sampling bias occurs when members of the intended population are chosen incorrectly - either because they have a lower or higher chance of being chosen. For instance, presidential election voters are the most well-known and easily understood example of sampling bias.

Blind Testing

It is a method of consumer testing products or packages in which consumers are unaware of the underlying brand being evaluated. The goal is to concentrate on the inherent product characteristics so that the direction for R&D product development can be clearly defined.

Branching Question

Using questions based on previous answer choices, branching survey questions direct users down conditional paths. While initially asking users a less generalized set of questions, these surveys enable survey administrators to collect valuable market and segmentation data available only with a customized set of questions.


It can be a product, service, or a concept that is different from other products, services, or concepts in order to facilitate communication and marketing. Branding is the process of developing and disseminating the brand name, as well as its characteristics and personality.

Brand Awareness

It is the degree to which consumers recognize a product by its name under various conditions. Ideally, consumers' brand awareness would include positive perceptions of the qualities that set the product apart from the competition.

Brand Equity

Brand equity is the value premium that a company generates from a product with its brand name. Companies can build brand equity for their products by making them memorable, easily recognizable, and superior in terms of quality and dependability. It describes the financial value of a brand in relation to a company's bottom-line profit.

Brand Essence

It is the set of fundamental values that defines a brand and serves as a foundation for the brand to appear consistent and authentic. It defines a brand's values, shapes its overall identity, and aims to evoke a specific thought, feeling, or emotion in consumers. Even if the executional characteristics of marketing variables (like packaging and advertising) change over time, these values remain constant. Brand essence is essentially a template against which all brand-related activity can be developed and integrated.

Brand Image

It refers to how customers perceive your brand and how they feel about their interactions with you. Many factors influence consumer opinion, including the quality of your brand's products, the impression you make through marketing, and levels of customer service.

Brand Loyalty

A consumer's positive feelings towards a brand, which translates to frequently purchasing the brand's products, regardless of deficiencies, a competitor's actions, or changes in the environment, are referred to as brand loyalty. It is a broad term used to describe the extent to which consumers prefer one brand over another. Since consumers frequently buy or use multiple brands, brand loyalty is a relative measure.

Brand Personality

A brand personality is a framework that assists an organization in shaping how people perceive its product or service. The brand personality of a company elicits an emotional response in a specific consumer segment, with the goal of inciting positive actions that benefit the company. It is an expression of a brand's fundamental core values and characteristics, described and experienced as human personality traits such as friendliness, intelligence, and innovation.

Brand Positioning

It refers to the unique value that a brand presents to its customers, essentially the brand's position in relation to its competitors in a predefined space. It is a marketing strategy developed by brands to establish their brand identity while communicating their value proposition, which is why a customer prefers their brand over others. Consumer criteria, e.g., "value for money," may be used to define the space.

Brand Proposition

Also known as a brand statement or value proposition, it is a sentence or phrase that encapsulates the brand benefits, e.g., a brand with technical superiority or a brand that guarantees next-day delivery. Often a brand benefit is translated into an end-line that becomes part of the brand communication on advertising, packaging, or promotions, e.g., "the world's favorite airline", and is useful in engaging potential customers and increasing market interest.

Brand Share

A share is a percentage of the total. Hence, a company share is the proportion of a company's revenue in a market. Similarly, a brand share is the proportion of a specific company's brand sales in a market. Brand shares can be expressed in terms of the sales value or the volume of units sold.


It is the process of establishing a distinct identity for a company in the minds of its target audience and customers. At its most fundamental, branding consists of a company's logo, visual design, mission, and tone of voice.


Compound annual growth rate is the average annual percentage growth rate over a set of n observations. The formula for calculating CAGR% is: ((last value/first value) ^(n-1))-1


It is computer-aided personal interviewing in which responses from a personal interview are keyed directly into a computer and the interview is managed by a specially designed program. The program checks for invalid responses and will not accept responses that are outside of the prescribed limits, so subsequent data editing and keying in are avoided.


It is computer-assisted telephone interviewing in which responses are typed directly into a computer and the interview is managed by a specially designed program. CATI checks for invalid responses and will not accept responses that are outside of the prescribed limits, so subsequent data editing and keying are avoided.


Computer-aided web interviewing (CAWI) occurs when respondents complete a survey and computer software presents each question only after the previous question has been completed. Subsequent questions can be tailored to the answers to previous questions, allowing intelligent routing plans to be used in these surveys.

Chat Room

It is a scenario in which participants in different locations are invited to join a virtual group discussion using their computers and the Internet. A moderator may or may not be present during the discussion, and comments are communicated in writing on members' screens.

Completion Rate

It is the proportion of qualified respondents who complete the interview – the number of people who have completed the survey in its entirety divided by the number of people to whom the survey was sent.

Concept Testing

It entails asking customers questions about your product or service concepts and ideas before actually launching it. As a result, you can gauge your customers' acceptance and willingness to buy and thus make critical decisions prior to the launch.

Consumer Panel (aka Panel)

It is a representative sample of people who have agreed to provide pre-specified information needed for consumer or business research. These specialized panel groups can take part in a variety of research projects like purchasing, media consumption, or lifestyle activities sponsored by the research organization.

Consumer Satisfaction Surveys

It is a survey designed to help businesses learn what their customers think about their products or services, brand, and customer service. It can include both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Consumer Survey

Consumer surveys provide information about consumer satisfaction with existing products as well as their opinions and expectations about new products and services.

Content Analysis

It is a technique for breaking down written material into meaningful units using carefully designed rules. It determines the presence of specific words, themes, or concepts in qualitative data (i.e., text). Researchers can use content analysis to quantify and analyze the presence, meanings, and relationships of specific words, themes, or concepts.

Continuous Panel

A consumer panel known as a "Continuous Panel" includes participation from the same respondents across time. [An ad hoc panel, in contrast, uses a pre-selected group of willing respondents as and when they are needed.]

Copy Testing

It is a technique for assessing the level of comprehension, impact, awareness, and credibility that an advertisement may produce. Following the presentation of the advertisement, respondents are asked about their thoughts.

Cost per Interview

It identifies the project's cost per survey. Cost per interview is the set fee an organization pays to obtain qualified responders for a project or study.

Data Collection

It is the process of gathering and analyzing data on relevant variables in a predetermined, systematic way that makes it possible to respond to formulated research questions, test hypotheses, and assess results.

Data Processing

It occurs after the information is gathered and transformed into a usable form. Data processing must be done appropriately in order to avoid having a detrimental impact on the final product, or data output, and is typically carried out by a data scientist or team of data scientists.


It includes presenting research findings to clients. For example, debriefing becomes a necessary component of the consent procedure when deceit is included in the research study. Participants receive a thorough explanation of the hypothesis being tested, the methods used to trick them, and the reason(s) why it was necessary to trick them during the debriefing.

Demographic Information

Demographic information is used to better understand the traits of the customers who consume their goods and services. Demographics can identify the people to whom your brand attracts most based on their age, geography, gender, employment status, income, and a myriad of other factors.

Depth Interview (aka In-depth Interview)

Intensive one-on-one interviews are conducted using the depth interview, which is a highly concentrated qualitative research technique. The purpose is to narrow in on a certain good, circumstance, or goal and learn more about how consumers behave.


It is a log in which information about a respondent's interactions with a topic or product is recorded. Diaries are frequently given to respondents when they obtain a product to use at home. They can also be used as a record of regular purchases or watching habits.

Diary Panel

A sample of respondents will be requested to keep a journal of their experiences or observations over a specific time period as part of a diary panel market research study.

Direct Observation

The practice of observing events, processes, or behaviors as they take place in order to gather data about the subject is referred to as direct observation.

Direct Question

A direct question is one that ends with a question mark and hence, is inherently open-ended. It is a question to respondents about their own behavior.

Discussion Guide

It is a list of questions and topics to be discussed with a user interview participant. A discussion guide usually starts with an introduction, then moves on to warm-up questions, exploratory questions, and a debrief.

Door-to-Door Survey

It is aimed to target residents of a given region or community. Researchers can ensure that they are collecting responses/data from an isolated audience by conducting a door-to-door survey. Door-to-door surveys are essential for collecting data from respondents who might not otherwise be willing or able to take part in other survey procedures, like those that are carried out online and sent by email.


In qualitative market research, dyads are conversations between two participants. These two participants could either know each other, like a parent and child, or could be strangers. The participants are joined by a moderator. Dyads frequently work best to contrast opposing points of view and get opinions on a subject from both sides, e.g., users of two competing brands.

Eligibility Criteria

It refers to the criteria that a person must fulfill to be accepted for a particular research project or study. These specifications aid in ensuring that participants are comparable to one another in terms of characteristics such as similar demographics.

Executive Summary

A complete overview of a market research document, an executive summary summarizes essential aspects for its readers, saving them time and enabling them to comprehend the study's overall content.

Experience Survey

It is a technique for conducting surveys among those who have first-hand knowledge of the issue under study. There won't be a formal questionnaire because it will be conducted as a casual conversation. The researcher may, however, only have a list of subjects to research.

Exploratory Research

refers to a topic's first step of using unstructured methods (such as group discussions or in-depth interviews) in order to generate hypotheses and/or gain a deeper understanding of the situation.

Extended Group Discussion

An extended focus group discussion goes beyond what is the usual length of a focus group. Usually, it lasts around 3-4 hours (compared with the usual time of around an hour and a half).

Eye Tracking Research

Eye-tracking equipment enables researchers to detect where study participants focus their visual attention, what they pay attention to, and what they ignore by monitoring and measuring eye movements, pupil dilation, point of gaze, and blinking. Eye-tracking studies help capture participants' eye movements while they are looking at stimuli, such as an online advertisement.

Field Experiment

Field studies are conducted apart from a lab environment (in a natural setting) where the external validity is usually higher than the internal validity). To evaluate claims of causal links, individuals are randomly assigned to treatment or control groups.


Also called field studies or field research, they refer to the gathering of unprocessed data outside of a formal context (like a lab, library, or office). Several methodologies and approaches are utilized in field research depending on the discipline


This refers to insights gathered from a research project (the findings after data analysis). Even if the results contradict the hypothesis, its main goal is to use the data gathered to address the research questions given in the introduction. are information that answers a research question.

Fixed Sample

The sample is said to be fixed when a survey is repeated multiple times yet observations are made on the same sample rather than a different sample on each occasion.

Focus Group

It is a type of qualitative study that entails an informal discussion of a certain topic with a few carefully chosen people usually 8-12(also known as a group discussion). A knowledgeable moderator guides the debate while maintaining objectivity and ensuring that all topics are covered, and participants' points of view are clearly expressed. Depending on the topic being addressed, there may be a better discussion with fewer participants, probably 4-6 than there would be with many.

Forced Exposure

The exposure is called 'forced' because the stimulus (typically an advertisement) is not presented to respondents in a natural environment (such as in their own homes). This can solve the common media problem statement, that in a real-world setting, the audience often actively avoids ads. If the forced exposure study doesn't capture that ad avoidance, it's missing a key insight.

Front-of-mind Awareness (aka Top-of-mind Awareness)

Also called top-of-mind awareness, it is the first brand that springs to mind when someone is given an open-ended inquiry about a category or industry (unaided brand awareness). E.g., when asked to name a football team, most people will most likely respond with Manchester United.

Funnel Approach

In this approach, researchers start with the broad characteristics of the topic (such as the historical framework) and gradually concentrate on the particular component of the study. This arrangement prevents the answers to specific questions from skewing the results of broad questioning.


Simply put, generalizability is a measurement of the applicability of a study's findings to a larger population or set of circumstances. It is considered that a study has strong generalizability if its findings may be applied broadly to a wide range of individuals or circumstances.

Group Discussion

Refer to #Focus Group.

Group Effect

It refers to a study finding that is unique to the participant's group of persons. A group effect may be present in an allocated subset, such as a treatment or intervention, or a naturally occurring subset, such as an age group or classroom.


The term "groupware" describes the computer program used to facilitate online group discussions.

HTML Survey

Also called website surveys, they are a type of data gathering technique in which a sample of respondents receives surveys or questionnaires via the internet and can answer to them online.

Hall Test

It’s a type of research methodology in which participants are invited into a predetermined setting, and are then asked to respond (usually quantitative) to specific stimuli, most frequently foods, drinks, advertising ideas, or other products.

Halo Effect

The halo effect takes place when we base our overall favorable opinion of a person, thing, or brand on just one quality. If our first impression is favorable, it will influence the judgments we make in the future.

Hidden Issue Questioning

It is a method used in depth interviews that tries to find key personal viewpoints that respondents might not otherwise share if approached directly.

Holistic Test

is a test that seeks to gauge how participants feel about a concept or product as a whole (in contrast to an atomistic test that examines reactions to the individual elements).

Home Use Test (aka Extended Use Test or Product Placement Test)

It involves users evaluating things in a natural usage setting, such as their own homes. The goal of the test is to evaluate a product after more use than only the initial stages of use.


A hypothesis outlines your expectations for the results of your investigation. It is a speculative, untested response to your research question. You might need to develop a number of hypotheses for some research projects that speak to various facets of your research issue.

Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is the process of evaluating the strength of evidence from a sample and providing a framework for making population-related determinations, i.e., it provides a method for understanding how reliably observed findings in a sample under study can be extrapolated to the larger population from which the sample was drawn.

Implied Population

It is the population that the sample indicates or the portion of the population of interest that was accessible for the study. The suggested population may be very different from the population of interest when a convenience sample is utilized or there is a sampling frame error (or the ideal population).

In-depth Interview (aka One-on-One or Diad)

A qualitative research method also known as a one-on-one or a Diad interview involves an unstructured personal interview with a single respondent that is done by a highly qualified interviewer. Understanding the underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and sentiments of respondents on a certain topic is the goal of in-depth interviews.

In-home Interview

Participants in an in-home interview are confronted with survey questions in their own homes.

In-house Research

It is a method used in depth interviews that tries to find key personal viewpoints that In-house research is a study carried out by employees of a client organization (rather than by an agency).
might not otherwise share if approached directly.

Inability Error

When respondents are unable to respond to a certain question, this is known as an inability error. This might be the case if they don't understand the question, don't have the data needed to answer it, can't recall the situations it refers to, or are unable to articulate certain types of responses.

Incidence (aka Strike Rate)

It is the percentage of survey participants that meet the criteria and are contacted.

Indirect Question

It is a question that requires study participants to think about other people's behavior rather than their own. Indirect inquiries are intended to eliminate bias brought on by best light and social group norms.

Intended Sample

The optimum sample for a specific research study is the intended sample (which may be different to the resulting sample).


It is a process where a respondent and an interviewer exchange information. This interaction is conducted using a questionnaire, and the interviewer notes the responses on paper or by utilizing a computer program after asking a question or a series of questions. The conversation can take place in person, over the phone, or online.

Interviewer Bias

Refer to #Interviewer Error.

Interviewer Cheating

When interviewers purposefully disregard their instructions, it is known as interviewer cheating.

Interviewer Error (aka Interviewer Bias)

It is a type of non-sampling error resulting from errors made by the interviewer. The respondent may have been influenced in some manner, the questions were asked out of sequence, or the interviewer used slightly different language (or tone of voice) than the others. It may also involve deliberate mistakes like cheating and false data entering.

Leading Question (aka Loaded Question)

It is a sort of inquiry that, depending on how it is phrased, forces respondents to reply in a particular way. More often than not, these questions are designed to validate the knowledge that already exists rather than to elicit an accurate and objective response.

Length of Interview

It refers to the length of time needed to conduct a survey and record the responses. All time needed for product tasting, concept reviews, etc. should be factored into this time frame. For the purpose of accurately calculating completion rates, screening time should be displayed individually.

Likert Scale

It is a rating system used to quantify attitudes, behaviors, and views. Following a statement or a question, there are a set of five or seven answer statements. Respondents select the choice that most accurately reflects their feelings toward the statement or topic.

Line Chart

It is a visual representation of the relationship between two variables that are displayed on the x- and y-axes. By connecting each point on a grid with a continuous line, it displays related information.

Mail Survey

It is a traditional survey method in which a multi-part survey questionnaire is mailed to a randomly selected group of people (within a larger population) and asked to be completed and returned to the survey researcher for tabulation and analysis.


It refers to the geographic area or locations where a research project is conducted, such as all or a portion of a country or all or a portion of a city.

Marketing Decision Support System

Often abbreviated as MKDSS, it aids you in making decisions based on the marketing objectives of your company. By using past data and allowing you to run different scenarios to determine which strategy could be most effective, an MKDSS can help you streamline your efforts.

Marketing Information System

Known as an MIS, it is a system for collecting, storing, processing and disseminating crucial marketing data. A marketing information system's input is centered on gathering pertinent internal and external data for analysis and interpretation. A marketing information system's output is the dissemination of the results to all key managers and members of the internal marketing team.

Marketing Research

Any method or collection of procedures used by businesses to gather data in order to better understand their target market is referred to as marketing research. Companies use this information to increase their UX, upgrade their products, and provide customers with better products. Marketers conduct market research to find out what consumers desire and how they respond to products or aspects of a product.


The methods you utilized for data gathering and analysis are covered and explained in your study methodology. The methodology chapter, a crucial component of any thesis, dissertation, or research paper, describes what you did and how you did it and enables readers to assess the validity and dependability of your research and dissertation topic.

Mini Group Discussion

It refers to a Focus Group with fewer participants than the typical 8–12 (often 4-6). This gives each respondent more opportunity to express their views and frequently results in a deeper comprehension of the issues at hand.


The moderator of a focus group or group discussion is in charge of ensuring that the conversation proceeds without a hitch, overseeing the group's dynamics and process, bringing up pertinent questions and ideas for the group to explore, and making sure that the client's goals are met. He/She leads the discussion without influencing it.

Monadic Evaluation

Also known as a Single Product Test, it exposes survey participants to distinct ideas. As opposed to comparison testing, which compares many stimuli side by side, it is typically utilized in investigations when independent results for each stimulus are necessary. It produces actionable deep-dive results for product and pricing decisions by concentrating participants' attention on one stimulus at a time.

Multiple Answers

When more than one response is acceptable for the same question, this is known as multiple answers.

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple choice questions are one of the most widely used and well-liked survey question kinds because they belong to the closed-ended question family. They enable your respondents to pick one or more choices from a set of predetermined responses.

Multiple Response Question

Refer to #Multiple Answers.

Mystery Shopping

A research tool used to assess service quality or standard compliance, it evaluates the level of service by having someone act in the role of a customer or client and engaging with a firm.

NA (No Answer)

Not applicable is a written abbreviation that is used on forms to indicate that you are not providing the information requested because the inquiry is not relevant to you or your situation. For e.g., “Please enter N/A in the space provided for any questions that do not relate to you.”

Natural Observation

Seeing subjects in their natural surroundings is referred to as "naturalistic observation." The objective is to observe behavior in an unaltered natural environment.

Non-probability Sample (aka Non-random Sample)

A subjective (i.e., non-random) way of selecting units from a population is known as non-probability sampling. Non-probability sampling is a quick, simple, and affordable method of collecting data because it doesn't call for a full survey frame.

Non-sampling Error

All causes of error that are unrelated to sampling are referred to as non-sampling errors. Data entry errors, biased survey questions, biased processing and decision-making, non-responses, inappropriate analysis conclusions, and false information given by respondents are just a few examples of what they can be.

Null Hypothesis

Any variation between the selected characteristics that you observe in a collection of data is thought to be the result of chance, according to the null hypothesis. It is a testable claim that is typically expressed negatively (or as a null), indicating that no change or impact is anticipated. If the claim is proven false, the alternative hypothesis will be approved, and the null hypothesis will be rejected.

Observation Bias

Observer bias occurs when a researcher's expectations, viewpoints, or prejudices affect what they observe or document in a study. When observers are aware of the study objectives or hypotheses, it typically has an impact on studies. Ascertainment bias or detection bias are other names for this kind of study bias.

Observation Study

It is a type of study where information is gathered by keeping an eye on customer behavior or other events taking place. A common tool in fields like sociology and biology, particularly for epidemiological research, observational studies are distinguished by their statistical and demographic methods.


Refer to #In-depth Interview.

One-sided Question

It is a type of leading question that only offers one facet of the subject under consideration by the respondents.

Online Discussion Group (aka Virtual Group)

It occurs when several previously selected study participants are in simultaneous electronic communication (via a PC) and they are talking about a specific topic. Since the participants cannot see one another during the conversation and the moderator is directing it, there can be no visual cues exchanged, but anonymity can be guaranteed.

Open-ended Questions (aka Unstructured Questions)

These are inquiries for which there isn't a predetermined list of possible answers on the surveys. The interviewer writes down the interviewee's answer verbatim. With the use of probing and clarifying techniques, the respondent is urged to give a full and open response when the survey is given by an interviewer. You can administer these queries by yourself as well.

Opening Questions

These are the first questions in a questionnaire. Hence, they should be engaging, straightforward, and unthreatening to win respondents' trust and cooperation.

Order Bias (aka position bias or sequential bias)

Respondents often favor certain items based on their placement in a list or sequence. A list's first and last items are more likely to be remembered than those that appear in the centre. To avoid this kind of bias, it is customary to rotate a roster.


It refers to an observation that differs abnormally from other values in a population-based random selection. In a way, this term defers the researcher's judgment as to what constitutes abnormal behavior.

Package Test

From early-stage development through to final validation, pack testing entails evaluating packaging. Given the risks of adverse consumer response, in particular, packaging must be tested before any major market activity.


Refer to #Consumer Panel.


Anyone who participates in a research study, other than just those who are interviewed, such as in an observation study or a group talk, is referred to as a participant in general.

Personal Interview

It refers to the process of interviewers questioning respondents in person. Any subject is fair game for the interviewer. The in-person interview can take place at a central location facility, the respondent's home, or at their place of work. Depending on the subject to be covered, these talks can be either lengthy or brief. In this method, exhibits are frequently used to assist the interviewee in providing answers.


By deducting the percentage of respondents who chose the test brand before exposure to the advertisement (or in the unexposed control group) from the percentage who did so after exposure, the persuasion copy testing measure is meant to demonstrate the ability of an advertisement to motivate. It is the overall switch from unexposed to exposed brand preference.

Pictorial Scale

It can be described as a tool that uses visual components (instead of words or numbers) to communicate the meaning of its items. The statement, the rating system, or both may be represented by image-based elements.

Pilot Testing

Refer to #Pre-testing.

Placement Test

Refer to #Home Use Test.

Pop-up Survey

They are a type of customer feedback poll. They are also known as on-site surveys, on-page surveys, or survey widgets. They are employed by businesses to covertly gather insights from website users as they browse or use a web application.

Population of Interest (aka Target Population or Ideal Population)

It refers to the population or group that a researcher attempts to take conclusions from. The surveyor is interested in learning more information about a segment of the general populace. Numerous research projects call for particular interest groups to make decisions in light of their results.


The results of post-testing are calculated for advertisements. It looks into whether the terms of introduction and buy are actual and not just imitations. Post-testing is essentially more precise, straightforward, and affordable as a result. An expanded variety of questions can be addressed using recognition-based post-testing.

Pre-selected Sample (aka Pre-recruited Participants)

Customers are asked to take part in a research study that is planned for a later date and time, provided they are eligible, after being contacted (by phone, mail, or in person, etc.). Those who concur and are qualified are frequently paid for taking part in the study.


Two distinct tasks can be referred to as pre-tests. Before conducting a larger study, a questionnaire is put to the test on a (statistically) small sample of participants in order to find any issues, such as unclear wording or a lengthy administration process. An initial assessment (such as brand or advertising awareness) made prior to the administration of an experimental treatment and later measurements are also referred to as a pre-test. Pre-tests can also be referred to as baselines, benchmarks, or pre-waves in this context.

Pre-testing (aka Pilot Testing)

It is the process of attempting the questionnaire on a (statistically) small group of respondents in order to spot any unexpected issues with the questions' wording or flow.

Preference Test

It is a survey technique for figuring out which of two or more variations of a resource your clients prefer. The options are presented to study participants, and they are requested to select their favorite.

Pricing Research

You can use pricing research to gather the customer data you need to choose an effective pricing plan. Research is the foundation of a successful pricing strategy, regardless of whether you intend to raise costs or are considering pricing a new product. It lets you know how the demand for a product varies basis price changes.

Primary Data

Primary research entails speaking with a source directly to get information, typically customers and potential buyers in your target market. Primary data can be gathered from interviews, surveys, experiments, etc.

Probability Sample

It is the process of selecting a sample from a population when the selection is founded on the randomization principle, also known as chance or random selection. In general, probability sampling is more difficult, time-consuming, and expensive than non-probability sampling.


If respondents hesitate or are unable or unwilling to answer a question, researchers frequently use probing as a technique to encourage a response. For example, "Would you lean more towards [answer] or [answer]?" is a neutral probing strategy that interviewers are taught to use to promote honest responses.

Product Image

Brand image and product image are very comparable. The term "product image" refers to the perceptions and the underlying mental picture connected to the object. It is a collection of opinions pertaining to a particular item. It denotes the present values that the product upholds.

Product Placement Test

Customers from the target market's homes are given the test product to use as they would typically use that kind of product. Following completion of utilization, the respondent provides feedback on the product and their experience using it. It can also apply to a study in which goods are put on store shelves to track sales.

Prompted Awareness (aka Aided Awareness)

It refers to the proportion of respondents who report having seen something (like a brand or an advertisement) after being exposed to some sort of stimulus material.


When an interviewer reads out potential responses to a query or displays research-related content to a respondent, this is known as prompting.


It is a description, typically in writing, of how marketing research data might be gathered and applied to address a particular issue. The following parts generally make up proposals, which are typically written by research service providers: background, objectives, methodology, costing, and timing.

Purchase Panel

Refer to #Consumer Panel.

Qualified Respondent (aka Eligible Respondent)

A person who satisfies the requirements established for a specific research and is therefore eligible to participate in it.

Qualitative Research

In order to better comprehend an issue, qualitative research uses unstructured exploratory techniques (like group discussions and in-depth interviews) that are based on statistically small samples.

Quantitative Research

Big statistically representative samples of quantitative data are gathered, and statistical analysis is typically used. The results from qualitative research are frequently supported by quantitative research.


A methodical way of gathering data that consists of a list of inquiries. Self-administered or given by an interviewer, oral or written responses are both acceptable for questionnaires.


It is the total amount of interviews that a data collection company must conduct.

Quota Sample (aka Purposive Sample)

It is a type of non-probability sample in which the necessary numbers of units with specific characteristics are specified.

Random Sample

Refer to #Probability Sample.

Raw Data

It refers to information that hasn't undergone any sort of analysis or transformation and was gleaned straight from a source.


It is the percentage of a given broadcast audience or universe that has at least once been exposed to an advertisement.

Reactive Bias

It is a sort of experimental error where test subjects alter their usual behavior as a direct consequence of the experimental circumstances.

Recall Test (aka Recall Measurement)

It refers to a post-test that looks into respondents' recall of information they may have read, heard, or seen. Measurements of memory can be done both with and without the aid of stimulus material; for more information, see prompted and spontaneous consciousness.


It is the process of inviting chosen participants (who satisfy specified eligibility requirements) to participate in the study.

Regression Analysis

It is the process of analyzing the relationship between a dependent variable against independent variables. It establishes whether a connection is present and how strong it is. When assessing the impact of one or more independent variables, it is also used to establish the mathematical connection between the variables, forecast the values of the dependent variable, and regulate other independent variables.

Related Recall

The attention-grabbing capability of an advertisement is measured using the Related Recall metric. To ascertain the percentage of people who watched a program and recalled seeing the specific commercial, respondents are interviewed within a certain time frame following exposure to the advertising medium.

Research Brief

It is a succinct, non-technical summary of a discussion paper written with decision-makers in mind and concentrating on the paper's results that are pertinent to policy.

Research Design

It is the research project’s blueprint. It contains the methods, equipment, and procedures used to conduct the research. It aids in locating and solving potential issues that may come up while conducting a study and analysis.


It refers to the subject (people) of a researcher's survey.

Respondent Error (aka Response Bias)

Response mistakes signify a lack of accuracy in answering inquiries. They can be ascribed to a variety of things, such as a questionnaire that needs to be improved, interviewers' or respondents' misinterpretations of the questions, and mistakes in the respondents' statements.

Respondent Fatigue

It is well known that when survey participants become weary of the survey job, the quality of the data they provide starts to decline. This phenomenon is known as respondent fatigue. It happens when poll respondents lose interest in and motivation for later questionnaire sections.

Respondent Fee (aka Incentive)

It is a payment made to individuals or organizations for their time and effort in participating in a marketing research study.

Respondent Level Data

Data at the respondent level comes from a specific subject.

Response Bias

Refer to #Respondent Error.

Response Latency

It measures how quickly or easily a respondent provides an answer to a survey question after being presented with it. It serves as a measure of attitude accessibility, or the degree to which an attitude object and the assessment of that object by the respondent are strongly related.

Response Rate

It is the percentage of completed interviews out of all those tried

Response Style

It refers to respondents' consistent propensity, regardless of the nature of the queries, to choose specific categories of answers.

Resulting Sample

It is the sample that has been produced in a specific research endeavor (which may be different from the intended sample).


It represents a portion of the target population for a research project. A smaller group is used for data collection in the vast majority of research projects because it is impossible to recruit the participation of the complete population of interest.

Sample Size

It specifies how many people will be involved in the study. Factors such as age, gender, and geographic location, are used to do so.

Sampling Error

Choosing a sample that does not accurately represent the complete population of data. As a consequence, the sample's findings do not accurately reflect the findings from the entire population.


To determine whether respondents are qualified to take part in a specific research project, screening is the process of asking targeted questions. This is done right at the start of the discussion.

Screening Questions

In order to determine whether a prospective respondent is qualified for the survey, screening questions are asked at the beginning of an interview or questionnaire.

Secondary Data

Facts that have already been gathered and made public as part of another study (other than the one at hand). Internal and exterior secondary data are the two categories of secondary data.


Markets are segmented into groups of consumers who are comparable to one another but distinct from the consumers in other groups.

Selection Bias

A type of non-sampling error where sample units are chosen for treatment in a manner that results in a profile that is different from the population's. Selection bias may be introduced by respondents as well as academics (putting themselves into groups to which they aspire to belong, but they do not currently belong).

Self-Administered (aka Self Completion)

The respondent completes the survey without the help or participation of a researcher, such as a questionnaire sent via mail.

Sensory Test

The analysis of a product or food (texture, flavor, taste, appearance, smell, etc.) via the panelists' sense of sight, scent, taste, touch, and hearing refers to sensory testing. For centuries, food items have been accepted or rejected using this kind of analysis.

Sequential Monadic Evaluation

It involves evaluating two or more goods or concepts one after the other, independently. Typically, the series is rotated to reduce order bias (i.e., respondents favoring an object or idea because of its position in a list).

Share of Mind

The degree to which a specific brand will be associated with a particular product group.

Simple Random Sample (aka Random Sample)

A type of probability sample in which every unit in the community of interest has a known, non-zero chance of being chosen.

Simulated Test Market

This test mimics real life by selecting respondents, interviewing them, and then watching them make or debate purchases. Mathematical models that predict variables like awareness, trial, sales volume, effect on other products, etc., can be developed using simulated test markets.

Single Product Test

Refer to #Monadic Evaluation.

Single Response Question

A single response question only allows for one response from the recipient.

Skip Pattern (aka Branching Question)

Refer to #Branching Question.

Snowball Sampling

A non-probability sampling technique where the first respondents are chosen at random and the next respondents are chosen based on recommendations or information from the first respondents.

Social Class

Refer to #Socio-economic Groups.

Social Desirability

Respondents often give responses that are socially acceptable or desirable, even though they may not be accurate.

Socio-economic Groups (aka Social Grades or Social Class)

A population of interest is divided into socio-economic groups (also known as social grades or social classes), typically based on the income and job of the head of the household, though other factors may also be used.

Spontaneous Awareness (aka Unaided Awareness or Unaided Recall)

The number of respondents that can cite a brand name without the interviewer's help.

Stimulus Material

Any material shown to participants in research initiatives.


Conducting pre-designed questionnaire interviews with a statistically significant number of respondents.

Target Population

Refer to #Population of Interest.

Taste Test

Participants are asked to assess a product's flavor either on its own or in comparison to other products. In order to perform blind taste tests, identifying elements like brand names, packaging, and so on are removed.

Telephone Interview

Participants in telephone interviews receive survey inquiries over the phone. A central telephone interviewing facility is typically where telephone interviews are done.

Test Marketing

A type of controlled experiment that is carried out in a carefully chosen geographic region to ascertain the effects of a marketing program on the revenue or profits of a good or service.

Theatre Test

Any variation between the selected characteristics that you observe in a collection of data is thought to be the result of chance, according to the null hypothesis. It is a testable claim that is typically expressed negatively (or as a null), indicating that no change or impact is anticipated. If the claim is proven false, the alternative hypothesis will be approved, and the null hypothesis will be rejected.

Unaided Awareness

Refer to #Spontaneous Awareness.

Unaided Recall

Refer to #Spontaneous Awareness.

Unbiased Questions

Questions are phrased in a way that prevents respondents from swaying their views.

Usage & Attitude Surveys (U&A)

Research initiatives with the goal of characterizing users (and non-users) of a product as well as their opinions towards the product.

Verbatim (aka Verbatim Statement)

It is an exact word-for-word reproduction of the respondent's opinion of an idea or object, with no omissions, abbreviations, or interviewer interpretations.

Virtual Group

Any type of group discussion that is organized using technology and in which participants cannot physically see one another is referred to as a virtual group. Online group discussions, moderated email groups, and chat rooms are a few examples.